The textbook states repeatedly that creative intelligence is both unmanifest or unseen, e.g., T at 30, 41, 107, 132, 252, 295, and unbounded or illimitable or infinite, e.g., T at 24, 44, 74, 100, 126, 157, 180, 208, 244.
The textbook frequently uses synonyms for creative intelligence and for the field of pure creative intelligence. For example, the textbook refers to the field of pure creative intelligence as "pure intelligence." T at 257. In one passage the textbook refers to the field of pure creative intelligence first as "pure intelligence" and in the following line of type as "intelligence." T at 82. Numerous additional references to the field of pure creative intelligence as simply "intelligence" appear throughout the textbook. E.g., T at 56, 60, 62, 89, 114, 157, 172. The textbook also refers to the field of pure creative intelligence as "the unbounded reservoir of intelligence." T at 102. The field of pure creative intelligence alternatively is called "the field of unlimited happiness," T at 32, 56, and "the unbounded ocean of bliss," T at 152; see T at 80, and "that Field of unbounded bliss-consciousness," T at 122. The field of pure creative intelligence is "a field of unbounded happiness." T at 162. The textbook gives creative intelligence the synonym "bliss-consciousness." E.g.. T at 55, 144. During the practice of Transcendental Meditation, bliss-consciousness, or creative intelligence, is said to "infuse" and "saturate" the meditator's mind. T at 38. 55, 56, 145, 180, 221. See, e.g., T at 95.
The textbook synonymously refers to the field of pure creative intelligence as "universal existence," T at 292, and "perfection of existence," T at 118. The textbook labels the unmanifest field of pure creative intelligence as "the most fundamental field of life." The textbook describes the field of pure creative intelligence as "the unmanifest center of life,"" T at 36, "the unmanifest field of life," T at 41, "the nonchanging basis of life," e.g., T at 74, 98, "the universal basis of life," T at 188-89, 129, "the wholeness of life," e.g., T at 178, 262, "the holistic field of life," T at 262, "the holistic basis of life," T at 264. The field of pure creative intelligence repeatedly is called the "basis of life," e.g., T at 245, 107, and the textbook uses "the source of life" as a synonym for the field of pure creative intelligence. See T at 78. See also Jarvis Deposition at 1035.
Another aspect of the field of pure creative intelligence is that it is "full." The textbook uses the word "fullness" as a synonym for the field of pure creative intelligence. For example, the textbook states that "[t]he fullness from which creativity begins is the unmanifest aspect of intelligence. From that fullness the waves of creative intelligence arise and dance into manifestation." T at 22. In other sections of the book, the textbook states that creativity begins in the field of pure creative intelligence and that the waves or currents of creative intelligence also arise from the field of pure creative intelligence. E.g., T at 121, 242. The textbook, especially in the first lesson, states repeatedly that "fullness is the source, course, and goal of existence and progress." E.g., T at 22 (emphasis in original). The textbook later equates "the unbounded wholeness of pure creative intelligence" with "the source, course, and goal of all existence." T at 171. The textbook equates "the goal of all growth and progress" with "the unbounded field of pure creative intelligence." T at 44. The subtitle for Lesson 27 is "Applying Fullness for Success in Life." T at 250. The text of Lesson 27 speaks of applying the field of pure creative intelligence for success in life, thus substituting that phrase for the word "fullness.":
When the unmanifest field of pure creative intelligence is incorporated in our awareness through regular practice of Transcendental Meditation, it can be practically applied in all phases of relative life; so we spontaneously succeed in every undertaking.
T at 252. Another instance of synonymous use of "fullness" and "the field of pure creative intelligence" occurs when the textbook refers to both terms as the "nature of life." In Lesson 7, the textbook states that during the practice of Transcendental Meditation "we experience the true nonchanging nature of life." T at 74. In Lesson 27, the textbook states that "the nature of life is fullness, bliss-consciousness...." T at 252.
The textbook states that the field of pure creative intelligence is perfect: "The field of pure creative intelligence is self-sufficient. It is fullness of life, perfection of existence, and therefore unattached to anything in the relative field, free from the influence of action." T at 118. "[N]o sorrow can enter bliss-consciousness, nor can bliss-consciousness know any gain greater than itself." T at 144. The field of pure creative intelligence of course is pure and possesses all qualities in their pure form.
The textbook speaks of certain goals of man and nature. For example, the textbook teaches that "the goal of life [is] perceiving the fullness of life in the waves of practical living." T at 250. The "living of the fullness of life" is the "ultimate success" of an individual. T at 257. The field of pure creative intelligence is the "goal of all existence," as well as its source. T at 171. The textbook instructs that the "true status" of each individual's mind "is unbounded bliss-consciousness." T at 55. If bliss-consciousness "could become permanently established in the mind, the mind would have accomplished its ultimate purpose...." Id. Establishing bliss-consciousness in the mind of course occurs only through the practice of Transcendental Meditation. "The purpose of man's life is to gain a state of unlimited energy, intelligence, power, creativity, and bliss." T at 52. If this is the purpose of man's life, how can this purpose be fulfilled? The textbook answers four pages later by stating that this purpose can be fulfilled by contacting the field of pure creative intelligence, T at 56, which is "the inexhaustible fountainhead of energy, creativity, intelligence, and happiness," T at 121, and "the origin of all power in nature." T at 98. It is "the goal of all progress," T at 44, and "[t]he goal of all activity," T at 52.
The textbook frequently states that contact with the field of pure creative intelligence is the exclusive means of obtaining fulfillment. For example, "[t]he experience of the holistic field of pure creative intelligence is an experience of wholeness, fullness, which alone can bring fulfillment to every phase of life." T at 260. Continuing in the same vein, the textbook states:
Our life has so many aspects. All the diverse aspects cannot possibly be attended to individually; fullness of life cannot be gained by amending the parts. What we can do is take care of the holistic value of creation, which lies in the unmanifest field of pure creative intelligence, by opening our awareness to it through Transcendental Meditation.
T at 262.
A fundamental teaching of the textbook is the existence of an unmanifest or uncreated level of life: "LIFE RANGES FROM GROSS TO SUBTLE TO UNMANIFEST." T at 152. See, e.g., T at 41. The textbook explains:
We know from physics that physical existence is composed of many different layers. Beyond the gross surface level of the object are increasingly subtle layers of existence, one within the other--molecular, atomic, subatomic. Beyond the subtlest level of the object is the unmanifest, unbounded value of the object.
T at 152. The unmanifest level of life is the field of pure creative intelligence: "The ultimate reality of every object is unmanifest creative intelligence." T at 154.
In summary, the textbook teaches that there exists an unmanifest or uncreated field of life which is illimitable or unbounded or infinite. This field of life is present everywhere, both within and without everything and every abstraction in the universe. This field of life is active, has "unlimited power," and encompasses all knowledge. This field of life is pure and perfect. Synonyms for this field of life are "perfection of existence," bliss, and intelligence. This field of life is the field of pure love, see T at 218, pure truth, see T at 76, and pure justice, see T at 220. This field of being has always existed.
Defendants seek to refute the statements in the textbook with conclusional assertions in affidavits and in their briefs the substance of which can be encapsulated thus: no matter what statements appear in the textbook, those statements are "not intended or understood as an [sic] religion, religious study or study of God." Jarvis Affidavit P. 27. Although defendants' counsel stated at oral argument that he would not call the Science of Creative Intelligence either a philosophy or a science or a religion, defendants' affidavits and brief argue and state that the Science of Creative Intelligence is a "philosophical study," Jarvis Affidavit P. 25, or "essays in philosophy," Harned Affidavit P. 27. See Db at 24. Based on this assertion, defendants seek to dismiss Creative Intelligence as merely "a philosophical idea," Harned Affidavit P. 28, or a "philosophic concept," Jarvis Affidavit P. 4611 and Db at 29. The textbook directly and explicitly contradicts these statements: "Creative intelligence is not just an abstract concept or idea; it is a concrete reality that can be practically applied to bring success and fulfillment to every phase of living." T at 250.
In their papers in opposition to plaintiffs' motion for summary judgment, defendants also select certain descriptions of creative intelligence from the textbook and attempt to refute their obvious meanings. Some of these attempted refutations are supported by imprecise and unpersuasive analogies; others stand as bald assertions of belief by the affiants.
For example, the textbook states that creative intelligence "guides and sustains every aspect of the universe." T at 174. Defendants state:
Creative intelligence is not understood or taught as sustainer of the universe in a religious sense. It "guides and sustains" in a scientific-philosophic sense much in the same manner that gravity guides and sustains the path of the planets.
Jarvis Affidavit P. 36. The weakness of the analogy requires little comment. Unlike creative intelligence, gravity is not inter alia, the source of life-energy, the home of all knowledge and wisdom, and the origin of all power in nature. See T at 98, 149. Unlike creative intelligence, gravity is not kind, or adaptable or practical; nor is gravity an ocean of love, T at 214, 216. Furthermore, gravity does not control everything in the manner in which the textbook states that creative intelligence does. For example, "the activity of nature is conducted by creative intelligence...." T at 114. "Every breath of life is spontaneously under the control of creative intelligence...." T at 38.
The textbook states that
the activity of nature is conducted by creative intelligence, by that comprehensive, unbounded intelligence, by that enormous computer which takes into account all possible avenues in designing a single channel of action.
T at 114. Plaintiffs contend that this statement and a number of others in the textbook indicate that creative intelligence is "the determining force of the universe." Defendants reply:
Nor is creative intelligence the determining force in the universe. It may be said to conduct "the activity of nature" in the same way that the DNA molecule conducts growth in the individual and may be likened to an "enormous computer."
Jarvis Affidavit P. 37. Some of the problems with this weak analogy are similar to those encountered in the previous analogy. There is no reason to believe that DNA molecules are kind or that DNA molecules are an ocean of love or that DNA molecules are "the ultimate reality" of every object, movement, and activity. See T at 154, 192. Moreover, DNA molecules are tangible; they are not the product of someone's imagination or belief, i.e., they are not "philosophic concepts" or "philosophical ideas." In addition, if DNA molecules can be said to contain the code or blueprint for the development of individual organisms, the textbook teaches that creative intelligence places that blueprint there: "the creative intelligence that structures the blueprint of life in our genes also regulates the movements of the far-distant galaxies...." T at 171. Not only does creative intelligence structure "the blueprint of life in our genes," but also "(c)reative intelligence has structured the [human] body...." T at 224.
Defendants state that "bliss-consciousness" is not intended or understood as a religious concept; rather it is merely a term to characterize experiences accompanying a specific level of personal growth." Jarvis Affidavit P. 38. The textbook's use of the term "bliss-consciousness" directly contradicts this definition of "bliss-consciousness." At a number of points, the textbook uses "bliss-consciousness" as synonymous with creative intelligence. For example, "[a]s creative intelligence, bliss-consciousness, becomes more infused in the conscious mind, every object becomes more charming, because we are able to perceive more of its full value." T at 55. Again, the textbook states that "[w]e know that the true nature of the self is unbounded pure creative intelligence, bliss-consciousness--that most self-sufficient field of life." T at 121. Still another example is the following quotation:
In cosmic consciousness a person's whole life is permeated by the light of pure creative intelligence.... He is established on that level of existence which is deep within everything--that field of unbounded bliss-consciousness which is self-sufficient and self-illuminating
T at 122. Of course, "that level of existence which is deep within everything" is referred to elsewhere in the textbook as the field of pure creative intelligence. See, e.g., T at 292.12
The mere fact that qualities such as beauty, creativity, intelligence and orderliness, are associated with creative intelligence does not make creative intelligence the source of aesthetic values. A Rembrandt painting can be described using similar values, yet it is not the source of aesthetic values in a religious sense.
Jarvis Affidavit P. 39. To say that these qualities are merely "associated with creative intelligence" states a far more modest position than that taken by the textbook. According to the textbook, the field of pure creative intelligence is the "home" of all of these qualities as well as "the home of all qualities that constitute the universe." E.g., T at 292. The field of pure creative intelligence and creative intelligence possess these qualities in their pure and perfect forms. For example, the textbook states that the field of pure creative intelligence is "the field of perfect orderliness." T at 63. The textbook also states the field of pure creative intelligence is "the source of all creativity." T at 242.
The implicit analogy to a Rembrandt painting is not well drawn. Surely no one would suggest that a Rembrandt painting is "the source of all creativity," as the field of pure creative intelligence is said to be. Creativity, beauty, intelligence, and orderliness existed long before Rembrandt put brush to canvas. Neither has any Rembrandt painting "existed for all times," as creative intelligence has; nor has any Rembrandt painting all the other qualities attributed by the textbook to creative intelligence. Finally and most obviously, a Rembrandt painting is a specific and tangible object, not an abstraction produced by belief or imagination.
Defendants admit that creative intelligence is eternal and state that "[p]urely secular ideas and principles, such as freedom and the concepts of truth and justice, are eternal and 'go on and on,' devoid of religious connotations." Jarvis Affidavit P. 42. As with defendants' other analogies, one of the weaknesses with this one is that freedom, truth, and justice do not have the other characteristics attributed to creative intelligence by the textbook. For example, neither freedom nor truth nor justice is a "concrete reality," T at 250, which "can be contacted," T at 13, and which "accomplishes all great things with no effort," T at 108. The textbook applies all three of the quotations to creative intelligence. Furthermore, the textbook states that freedom, truth, and justice are merely three of the multitude of qualities contained within the field of pure creative intelligence. E.g., "Justice is a quality of creative intelligence." T at 220. See, e.g., T at 72-81, T at 118-125, T at 214-221. Freedom, truth, and justice thus can be seen as eternal as aspects of creative intelligence just as a religious person could see these three concepts as being eternal as aspects of God. Indeed, a person who believes in the existences of both God and creative intelligence theoretically could see creative intelligence as an aspect of God. To an atheist, however, creative intelligence must take on the role of an ultimate essence or supreme being. While an atheist might be able to accept statements that freedom, truth, and justice all were eternal concepts with no relation to God, acceptance of the eternal existence of the field of pure creative intelligence or of creative intelligence, with all its extraordinary characteristics, would require the belief in an essence or being beyond human existence.
Defendants contend that creative intelligence is not all-powerful: "Creative intelligence is understood as 'the origin of all power' in the sense that the stability of mind and body which results from the practice of the TM technique, enables a person to be healthier, to exercise better judgment and thereby be more powerful." This statement differs substantially through understatement and truncation of the relevant textbook quotation from that which is stated in the textbook. The textbook asserts that the field of pure creative intelligence is "the origin of all power in nature." T at 98. Defendants' statement, by truncating the quotation from the textbook, implies that creative intelligence is the origin of all power only in an individual. The textbook, however, speaks of creative intelligence in terms of universality. E.g., T at 126, 188-89. In the entire phrase of which defendants quote only a part, the textbook asserts that the field of pure creative intelligence is "the origin of all power in nature." T at 98. The textbook repeatedly refers to "the unlimited power of creative intelligence," T at 108, and "the unbounded power of creative intelligence," T at 110. The textbook states that creative intelligence conducts the activity of nature, T at 114, including the structuring of the human body, T at 224, and the structuring of the blueprint of each individual's life in his or her genes, T at 171. The textbook states that creative intelligence "can permeate anything," T at 107, "accomplishes all great things with no effort," T at 108, and "is able to accomplish everything effortlessly," T at 118. Creative intelligence is absolutely self-sufficient and self-illuminating, T at 121-22, has "unbounded resources," T at 126 and can know no gain greater than itself. T at 144.
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11 In apparent contradiction to the statement in his affidavit, Mr. Jarvis, president of WPEC-US, testified at deposition that creative intelligence is an objectively demonstrable phenomenon, "demonstrable in its expression. For instance, I move my hand." Jarvis Deposition at 878. Mr. Jarvis also testified at deposition that SCI/TM was not a philosophy. Id. at 1016. [ back ]
12 At other points, the textbook refers to "bliss-consciousness" as a state of mind which can be achieved through Transcendental Meditation. E.g., T at 95. Presumably, this use of "bliss-consciousness" differs from its use as a synonym for creative intelligence. This situation illustrates a recurrent technique of the textbook, which is the attribution of different meanings to identical, seemingly technical terms, such as "bliss-consciousness" and "fullness," in different sections of the textbook. No doubt, this technique contributed to the fact that no high school class in New Jersey managed to complete more than nine of the 32 lessons contained in the textbook. Jarvis Affidavit at P. 32. The vagueness engendered by this technique is compounded by the fact that the textbook, although labelled [sic] a "Science" and now called "essays in philosophy," is virtually devoid of reliable definitions. The 296-page textbook defines one term: creative intelligence. All other definitions apparently are left to classroom discussion as all other terms are undefined or are defined capriciously, varying from sentence to sentence. An example of whimsical definition occurs on page 23 of the textbook. The first sentence on page 23 reads: "Perceiving the fullness of life means perceiving creative intelligence functioning in every expression of life." Thus it appears that fullness of life means perceiving creative intelligence functioning in every aspect of life. A few paragraphs later on the same page, however, the textbook states that "[t]he fullness of life is already within us--it only needs to be enlivened." If fullness of life means creative intelligence functioning in every aspect of life, however, how can the fullness of life be within us waiting to be enlivened? The next page of the textbook states that it is the field of pure creative intelligence that is within us and it is creative intelligence which "only needs to be enlivened." T at 24. It thus appears that fullness of life is a synonym for creative intelligence instead of a synonym for creative intelligence functioning in every expression of life. The paragraph which begins by informing the reader that the fullness of life is within us waiting to be enlivened, however, continues as follows:
Fullness of life means making use of the fullness of creative intelligence-living a life that is always creative and interesting, ever lively with new discoveries and insights, life that is always intelligent, orderly and purposeful, our creative energies being productively channeled into ever greater achievements. Fullness of life means enjoying the full range of our potentialities--inner strength and stability, outer adaptability, ease of expression, and enjoyment
T at 23. Appropriately, the text of lesson one ends three sentences later with the question "[w]hat does fullness of life mean to you?" T at 23. The textbook does not state whether the student is to pick one of the definitions appearing on page 23 or use his imagination to create a definition for himself. In either case, clarity and precision of communication suffer.
As stated earlier, "fullness of life" is the main theme of the three-year curriculum of "The Science of Creative Intelligence," the three subthemes adopted for each year being "perceiving the fullness of life," "developing the fullness of life," and "living the fullness of life." T at 11. Despite the obvious importance of the term "fullness of life" to an intellectual understanding of the course, the textbook never offers an explicit, reliable definition. In numerous places, the textbook uses "fullness of life" synonymously with creative intelligence or the field of pure creative intelligence. E.g., T at 126. But see T at 216, where the textbook states "[l]ove is the fullness of life." The purpose of this nebulous approach to technical terms is never stated, but the lack of precise definition of terms and the use of identical terms for different referents seems an unusual and unnecessarily confusing approach to be taken by an introductory textbook in a science or philosophy course. Other instances of imprecise and poor usage of words occur throughout the textbook. For example, 25 of the 32 lessons in the textbook begin with the words "two qualities of creative intelligence." These words are followed immediately, not by the names of two qualities, but by two adjectives. [ back ]
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